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《呼啸山庄》:一部女性哥特小说的论文

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《呼啸山庄》:一部女性哥特小说的论文 [abstract]wutheringheightsistheonlynovelbyemilybrontë,anenglishwomanwriterinthe19thcentury.alsoitisapieceofexquisiteworksoftheworld’sliterature,whichdisplaysaseaofgothiccolors.thispapertriestomakearesearchontheproductionofwutheringheights,basingongothictraditionofeuropeanandamericanliterature.emilybrontëmakesuseofandbreaksthroughgothictraditioninthefacetsoftheportrayalofthecharactersandtheuseofimage.drawingonherextraordinaryimagination,emilysucceedsinmergingrealitywithgothictechniqueslikesymbolism,terror,andmystery,inputsthepassionatefeelingsandenergyintotheoldmodes,andperfectlyunitesthegothicformwithpassionatecontents.thethesisaimsatdiggingoutsomehiddenimplicationsinthenovelfromanewanddifferentperspectivetoprovidethereaderwithmoreenlightenmentandspeculationandtriesatthesametimetohelpthereadersrereadthisnovelfromtheangleoffemalegothicbydisplayingthesurrealisticdescriptionofthedevilishcharactersandthenightmares. [keywords]wutheringheights;femalegothicnovel;devilishcharacters;nightmares 【摘要】《呼啸山庄》是19世纪英国女作家艾米莉·勃朗特的惟一的一部小说,也是世界文学园地中的一朵奇葩,其中展现了大量的哥特色彩。WwW.11665.com本文立足于欧美文学中的哥特传统研究《呼啸山庄》的创作,作家艾米莉在人物形象和意象等方面都借鉴了哥特传统并有所突破;她凭借超乎寻常的想象力,将现实与象征、恐怖、神秘等哥特手法完美地结合在一起,给陈旧的形式注入了激烈情感和活力,达到哥特形式与激情内容的完美统一。笔者试图从一个新的角度——女性哥特来挖掘出《呼啸山庄》中尚未被挖掘出的一些新的意蕴和内涵。同时也希望通过展示魔鬼式人物和梦魇的超现实主义描写,使我们能够从女性哥特的角度解读这部小说。 【关键词】《呼啸山庄》;女性哥特小说;魔鬼式人物;梦魇 1.introduction emilybrontëisanenglishwomanwriterofsuperbtalentduringthevictorianage.sheiswellknownforheronlynovelwutheringheights,astrangeandpowerfulbook,saidbymanytobethefinestnovelintheenglishlanguage.yetshortlyafterthedesolateandshockingmasterpiececomesout,itisattackedandblamedtobefloodedwithmorbidpsychologyandpaganism.“anyonewhodidreaditwasrepulsedbythebrutalityandviolenceofthecharacters”[1]andbythefactthatitdifferedsomuchfromtheromanticnovelsoftheday.theydonotwantrealismasemilydepictsit,andtheydonotwantwild,fierceantiheroeslikeheathcliff-whoismorelikeavillain-orwillful,passionateheroineslikecatherineearnshaw.andthatisthereasonwhysheiskeptawayfromthemainstreamofthenineteenthcenturyliterature,anddonotreceiveherfairfameuntilthecomingofthetwentiethcentury.bothemilyandherworksaremysteriousandunique.therearevariousapproachesappliedbythecriticstostudywutheringheightsfromtheaspectsofthetheme,thewritingtechnique,loveandrevenge,andsoon.however,thereishardlyanyattempttoresearchwutheringheightsbycombiningitsgothiccontextwiththefeministviewpoint.inviewofthisblank,theauthoristryingtorereadthisworkasafemalegothicnovelmainlybasedonthefollowingthreefacets:firstly,inthehistoryofenglishliteraturetheearlygothicnovelsoriginatedinthelatterhalfoftheeighteenthcentury.itwasopportunethatthewholestoryhappened,developed,andendedintheperiodfrom1771to1802.atthattime,theenglishgothicnovelswerecatchingonlikefirethroughoutthecountry.withthedevelopmentofgothicnovelspeoplegraduallyforgottheearlygothicnovels.yetfromthebrontësisters’janeeyreandwutheringheightswecanstillfindthegothicfeaturesevidently.secondly,sincetheindustrialrevolutioninthesecondhalfoftheeighteenthcentury,theclassstructureandpeople’swayoflivinginenglishsocietyhadundergoneradicalchanges.peoplethenweretiredoftheoldlivingmodeandexpectedsomethingnovelandpleasing,whichformedthesocialbasisfortheproductionofgothicnovels.finally,therearecountlessculturaltiesbetweenwutheringheightsanditsauthor.“strongerthanaman,simplerthanachild.”[2]charlottebrontëusesthesewordstodescribeher.emilyisthetrulyfreespiritofthefamily,onewhocouldnotliveawayfromherbelovedextensivethoughdangerousandbleakmoors-haworth.herfatherisofirishstockandfamousforhisfluentspeechandimagination.heplaysaveryimportantroleinshapingemily’scharacterandgenius-“thetemperamentoftheirish-melancholy,passionate,proud,restless,eloquent,andwitty–andthemethodistreligiousfervorandenthusiasmshownbythefollowersofjohnwesley.”[3]besides“environmentalsoplayeditspartincreatingtheuniquenessofemilybrontë.thevillageofhaworthwasveryisolatedandintenselyyorkshireandthepeoplelivingtherewereinstrongcontrasttotheceltictemperament.theywereblunt,practical,stubborn,sparingofspeech,vigorous,andharshtothepointofbrutality.”[4]theproductofthemoorsexaltsthespiritofemilyandfillshersoulwiththeloveofliberty.anotherfactorthatinfluencesemily’scharacterisherbrother,branwell,theonetowhomemilyhasalwaysbeenclosest.branwell’sfallingpreytodrinkanddrugsalmostmakesemily’sheartbroken.becauseofhisdeath,emilyneverleavesthehouseagainandinsistsonkeepingupherregularroundofduties.afewmonthsafterbranwell’sdeath,emilydiesattheageofthirty. inconclusion,emilybrontë“usedthestarkyorkshiresetting,nottocreatesuspenseandhorror,asinthetypicalgothicnovel,butasanaturalpartofherstory.”[5]ononehand,shecarriesonthegothictraditioninhercreationofthenovel.ontheotherhand,shehasnotjustemployedthemodebutpromotessomeimprovementsinthisoldtradition.sheusedtheskilloffemalegothicinherwritingofthenovel.inthefollowing,theauthoristryingtomakeastudyonwutheringheightsfromtheaspectsofthedevilishcharactersandtheterrifyingnightmares. 2.fromgothicnoveltofemalegothicnovel instudyingwutheringheightsfromtheaspectofafemalegothicnovel,noonecanignorethedefinitionofthistermgothic.todoso,however,oneislikelytofallintothetrapofambiguity,forthereisnodefiniteandcomprehensivewaytoexpoundit.astimegoesby,theconnotationofthistermgraduallyexpandsfromitsoriginalmeaningintobroadersense. “thewordgothicoriginallyreferredtothegoths,anearlygermanictribe,thencametosignify‘germanic’,then‘medieval’.”[6]andthemembersofthistribewinfamebecauseoftheirvalianceandtruculenceduringthebattlewithromans.althoughafteraround7a.d.thegothsvanishesfromhistory,theyhadindirectlyaddednewmeaningtothewordgothicthatisthenusedtodenoteastyleofarchitecturethatoriginatesinfranceandflourishesduringthemedievalperiod.themajorcharacteristicsofgothicbuildingsareembodiedby“theuseofthehighpointedarchandvault,flyingbuttressesandintricaterecesses,whichspreadthroughwesterneuropebetweenthetwelfthandsixteenthcenturies”.[7]asaresult,thegothicarchitectureisusuallydeemedtobemysteriousandfrightening,representingtheinhumaneandthedarkages.todaygothiciserroneouslyconsideredcrudeandbarbaric. withthepassingoftime,gothicisendowedwithanewconnotation.aroundtheearlyeighteenthcentury,gothicdevelopsintoagenreinliteraryrealm.inparticular,“thetermgothichasalsobeenextendedtoatypeoffictionwhichlackstheexoticsettingoftheearlierromances,butdevelopsabroodingatmosphereofgloomandterror,representseventsthatareuncannyormacabreormelodramaticallyviolent,andoftendealswithaberrantpsychologicalstates.”[8]theattempttodefinegothicwritingsusuallyfollowsthemethodnamedbyeugeniadelamotteinmonthlypublishedin1801.insuchkindofworks,“somewriterssettheirstoriesinthemedievalperiod;otherssettheminacatholiccountry,especiallyitalyorspain.thelocalewasoftenagloomycastlefurnishedwithdungeons,subterraneanpassages,andslidingpanels;thetypicalstoryfocusedonthesufferingsimposedonaninnocentghosts,mysteriousdisappearances,andothersensationalandsupernaturaloccurrences.”[9]thoughtheplotsandthemesofgothicwritingsaredifferentspecifically,theyfocusonthedepictionofaseriesofweirdandsimulativeeventssuchasmurder,revenge,violence,rapeandincest,thusendowingthewholeworkwithanatmosphereofsuspense,mysteryandsenseoffear.withitsartificialover-ornamentation,itsunbridledimagination,itsnotoriousfameofseducingdegenerationandcorruption,gothicwritingsareseverelycriticizedandrejectedbymainstreamliterarygenres.“inthehistoryofwesternliterature,thereareseasofschoolsoffictionhavingmadestrongimpacts.flourishedduringtheendoftheeighteenthandearlynineteenthcentury,theenglishgothicnovelisoneoftheschoolsthatexertsatremendousinfluenceandownsconsiderableuniqueness.”[10] thetrendofbegettingmoraldegenerationandemotionalover-indulgencebringsgothicnovelsanalternativename“blacknovel”[11]whichhasbeenkeepinggothicnovelsontheborderzoneofthedevelopmenthistoryoftheworldfiction.receivinggeneraldisapproval,gothicnovelsaretreatedwithindifferenceandleftoutinthecoldinbothwesternandchineseliterarycriticismcircles.peoplehavebeeninclinedtopayattentiontothenegativefacetofgothicnovelswhilefailtonoticetheirmoralinstructionasthepositiveside.althoughingothicnovelsthethickblackatmospherespreadallovertheplace;andalthough“theprincipalaimofsuchnovelswastoevokechillingterrorbyexploitingmysteryandavarietyofhorrors”,[12]behindtheseeminglydeliberateblackandirrationalcontenttherehidesinsidethesubstantialandprofoundrationalcontent.gothicnovelsneverceaseportrayingcombatsbetweenthebrightandtheblack,thegoodandthebeautiful.byadvocatingandseekingtheessenceofhumannatures,gothicnovelsrightlyshockandawakenpeoplebyitsuniquedescriptionofcomplicatedandeccentricplots,themysteriousatmosphereandthebloodyscenes. in1764,theenglishwriterhoracewalpoleinauguratesthegothicnovelswithhisthecastleofotranto:agothicstoryinhisgothiccastleunderthesettingofmiddleages.thenovelisfloodedwithevil,violence,andmurderincoldblood.anditbecomestheforerunneroftheenglishandwesterngothicnovels.setinmedievalitaly,thecastleofotrantotellsastoryaboutusurpation,conspiracyandmorality.thestoryendswiththegoodpromotedwhiletheevilpunished.thenovelpavesthewayforthedevelopingofthegothicnovels:therearesecretpassagesandmysteriousabbey,thevillainoususurperandthevirginalheroine,theuprighthero,thedisplayofsadisticandmasochisticemotionsandtheunbridledsexualityandsensuality.itexhibitsitsrebelliousandexcessivequalities.theportrayalofunanimatedcharactersandbrashplots,theeerieandhorriblesettingsandscenery,thedepictionoftheinstitutionofcavalier,however,broughtitlong-termcriticism.withthepublicationofthecastleofotrantotherealhistoryofthewordgothicbeginsfromeighteenthcentury.anditmainlyreferstothefollowingthreemeanings:barbarous,medieval,andsupernatural. fromthenon,alargenumberofgothicnovelscomeoutwiththethemestickingtotheexplorationofhumannatureandpassionsinformsofindulgenceandirrationalexcessaround1790s.examplesofgothicnovelsarewilliambeckford’svathek(1786),annradcliffe’sthemysteriesofudolpho(1794),andmatthewgregorylewis’themonk(1796).thelattertwoworksareconsideredtobethemostoutstandingandinfluentialworksamongthelargenumberofthegothicnovelsduringgothicdecade.annradcliffeisoneofthemostfamousfemalenovelistswhoseworkstouchuponthetypicalgothictraditions.byinheritinganddevelopingmajorfeaturesofherpredecessors,sheattachesmuchimportancetofemalefiguresingothicnovels,endowingherworkswithnewcharacteristicsandpreservingtheirdistinctingredients.therefore,sheishighlypraisedfortheinitiatoryemphasisonwomenandtheirsituationswithingothiccontextbesideshergreatcontributiontogothictraditions.therearetypicalgothicfeatures,suchasruinedcastlesandabbeys,isolatedpassagewaysanddarkforestsinhernovel,aswellassomeuniquefeatures,whichcannotbefoundinmalegothicnovels.tosomeextent,shestartsthetraditionoftheso-calledfemalegothic. femalegothic,thevariantofmoderngothic,firstcomesoutfromellenmoers’literarywomen.shedefinesfemalegothicas“theworkthatwomenwritershavedoneintheliterarymode”.[13]gettingflourishedinthelateeighteenthandearlynineteenthcentury,femalegothicnovelsusuallyfocusonafemaleprotagonistwhoischasedandtormentedbyvillainousgothicfigureswithunfamiliarsettingsandhorriblelandscapeasthebackground.“nogothicnoveliswithoutitssufferingheroine,whoisboth‘sexualized’asanobjectofdesireand‘victimized’byapowerfulaggressorwhoisalsoapotentialrapist.thefirsttaskoffeministcriticismwastoarticulatetheproblemoftheabuseofthefemaleingothicfictionandtoexplorethewaysinwhichfemalenovelistssubvertedorreinscribedtheculturalnormsoffemalesexualizationandvictimization.”[14]thefemalegothicaimstosocializeandeducateitsfemalereadersbycriticizingpatriarchaldominionandservesasanexpressionoffemaleindependence.it“notonlymarkstheintroductionofgenderedperspectiveintogothicstudies,butalsoopensupanewspaceforfeministliterarystudies.”[15]inaword,femalegothicisaformofliterature,whichexpressestheinnersecretresistance,fantasy,andterrorofthefemale.womenareundertheoppressionofmenforalongtime,anditishightimethatwomenwritersshouldsubvertmaledominatedliterarydiscourseandestablishtheirownwritingtradition. applyinggothicgenreasaplatform,thefemalegothicwritersareinclinedtoexpresstheirownunderstandingonwomen’sconditionsandcommunicatewithreaders,especiallythefemale.theprominentrepresentativesoffemalegothicnovelsincludejaneaustin’snorthangerabbey(1818),maryshelley’sfrankenstein(1817),andcharlottebrontë’sjaneeyre.emilybrontë’semployingoffemalegothic“shouldhaveanairofbeinginfectedbyhoffmanntooisnotsurprisinginacontemporaryofpoe’s;emilyislikelytohavereadhoffmannwhenstudyinggermanatthebrussels’sboardingschoolandcertainlyreadtheghastlysupernaturalstoriesbyjameshoggandothersinthemagazinesathome.”[16]emily“growsupbyreadingmaryshelley,hoffmann,andjameshogg’sgothicnovels.”[17]inemily’swutheringheightstherecanbefoundhereandtheretheinfluenceofthegothictradition.inthefollowing,thisthesiswillanalyzewutheringheightsfromfemalegothicperspectives,basicallyfocusingonitsdevilishcharactersandterrifyingnightmares. 3.analysisontheembodimentoffemalegothicinwutheringheights 3.1devilishcharactersoffemalegothic 3.1.1heathcliff:apoorinhumanmonster 3.1.1.1tenantmr.lockwood’simpressiononheathcliff ingothicnovels,theshapingofthecharactersisacommonlyusedvehicleforgivingexpressiontothegothicingredient.thisisparticularlytrueofemily’swutheringheights.whenweopenthisbook,wecanseevariousterrifyingcharacters.thefirstcharacteristheheroheathcliff.heseemstobeaninhumanmonster.beingasonofthestorm,hisbehaviorisfloodedwithgothiccolor:cruel,imperious,andhestoopstoanythingtogetwhathewants.what’smore,thelovebetweencatherineandhimgoesbeyondthecommonlimitandisquiteabnormalcomparedwithloveinotherworksofherage.theentireactionofthestorytakesplacewithinthetwohouses-wutheringheightsandthrushcrossgrangeandonthemoorsliebetween.theprincipalcharacter,heathcliff,aroundwhomalltheactionrevolves,emergesasstarklyaswutheringheights.hemaybethoughtofasthepersonificationofthehouse.thereisananalogybetweenhisappearanceandhischaracterandthatoftheheightsitself. whenmr.lockwood,thetenantofthrushcrossgrange,payshisvisittowutheringheights,curiousaboutthebroodingqualityandcrumbing,menacingappearanceoftheheightsandtheinscriptionoverthedoor-thedate‘1500’andthename‘haretonearnshaw’,mr.lockwoodwouldliketoaskhislandlordaboutthis,butheathcliffprovestobeunsociable,inhospitable,andbrusque. “the‘walkin’wasutteredwithclosedteeth,andexpressedthesentiment,‘gotothedeuce’:eventhegateoverwhichheleantmanifestednosympathizingmovementtothewords;andithinkthatcircumstancedeterminedmetoaccepttheinvitation:ifeltinterestedinamanwhoseemedmoreexaggeratedlyreservedthanmyself.”[18] thisisthefirstappearancethatemilydisplayedtous.andthefirstimpressionoftheheroheathcliffaddsthecolorofmysteryandimpliestothereadersthatthemanisboundtohavealongstory.bythebriefportrayalofthehero,shecreatessuspenseforthewholestory,whichembodiesthegothictradition. duringmr.lockwood’sstayingattheheights,hefoundadiary.theentryregardingthedegradinglifeheathcliffwasforcedtoleadbyhindleythrowssomelightonthecharacterofheathcliffasmr.lockwoodnowfindshim.forthefirsttimewesympathizewithheathcliffinhisanguish,althoughwearestillignorantastoitscause.heathcliffhasbeenrevealedasamancapableofgreatemotion,aswellascruelty.thescenestillisintheheights.declaringthattheroomishaunted,mr.lockwooddecidestospendtherestofthenightelsewhere.asheisabouttoleavetheroom,theoddandhorriblethinghappens: “iobeyed,sofarastoquitthechamber;whenignorantwherethenarrowlobbiesled,istoodstill,andwaswitness,involuntarily,toapieceofsuperstitiononthepartofmylandlordwhichbelied,oddly,hisapparentsense.hegotontothebedandwrenchedopenthelattice,bursting,ashepulledatit,intoanuncontrollablepassionoftears.‘comein!comein!’hesobbed.‘cathy,docome.oh,do-oncemore!oh!myheart’sdarling!hearmethistime,catherine,atlast!’thespectershowedaspecter’sordinarycaprice:itgavenosignofbeing;butthesnowandwindwhirledwildingthrough,evenreachingmystation,andblowingoutthelight.”[19]heathcliffisalarmedwhenhehearsthatcatherinehasappearedtomr.lockwood;obviously,hebelievesthatherspirithauntswutheringheightsandistryingtocometohimfrombeyondthegrave.thiselementarousestheinterestandcuriosityofthereaderandembodiesgothiccolorastepforward. 3.1.1.2crazyrevengeonhisenemies withthebirthofhissonharetonandthedeathofhiswifefranceshindley’sfinaldisintegrationcommerces.thisisconsistentwiththemoralweaknesshehasshownpreviously.heconcentrateshisvenomonheathcliff,whomhebrutalizesandinwhomhetriestostampoutthefeelingofworthinessthatoldmr.earnshawhadengendered.heathcliff,inturn,delightsinseeinghisenemydestroyhimself.itisconsistentwithheathcliff’snaturethatheencourageshisenemiestodestroythemselvesbytheirwoninnerflaws.andreadersanticipateconflictsandtroubleinthefuture.fromthispointofview,hebehavesquitecruelandrevengeful.tofulfillhisrevengeonhindley,heturnslittleharetonintoabrutewithnoloveorrespectforhisfather,andhehasendedhiseducation–justashindleydidtohim.whenheathcliffreappearsaftercatherine’smarriage,thinkingshemightshowhimwherehisevilwaysareleadinghim,nellypaysavisittotheheights.seeinglittleharetonoutsidethegates,sheidentifiesherselfandsaysshehascalledtoseehisfather,hindley.haretondoesnotrecognizeherashisformernurseandgreetsherwithahailofstonesandcurses.nellyaskshimwhotaughthimsuchthingsandheanswers“devildaddy.”[20]hesayshisfathercannotabidehimbecauseheswearsathim.hesaysthecuratenolongercomestoteachhimanditisheathcliff,whomheloves,whohastaughthimtoswear.furthermore,heisdeterminedtobrutalizeharetonashimselfwasbrutalized.thisisevidentedbytheincidentofhareton’shangingthepuppies.sofar,heathcliffhassucceededinrevenginghindley’sinsultonthenextgeneration.hiscrueltyiseasytofeel.

what’smore,hisattitudetowardsisabellaisnotonlyverycruelbutalsoveryimperious.edgarishisenemy,too.oncehedeclareshewill“crushhisribsinlikearotten-hazel-nut”.[21]becauseofhishatredforedgar,hetakesadvantageofedgar’ssister,isabella.whenhefindsisabellahasfalleninlovewithhim,heencourageshertorunoffwithhimeventhoughhedoesnotloveheratall.hedoessoonlyforthelintonpropertyandtherevengeonedgar.butafterhermarriagetohim,shereceivesnoloveorpityfromhim,butindifferenceanddistain.thedesperatelyunhappyisabellasendsalettertonellysaying“ismr.heathcliffaman?ifso,ishemad?andifnot,isheadevil?”[22]emilybrontëusesisabella’slettertoletusknowaboutthestateofaffairsatwutheringheightsandaboutheathcliff’sabusivetreatmentofisabella.whenshedefendsherbrother,heathcliffretortsthatshelookslikeaslut.hehintsthatsheislosinghermindandsayshewillnotletheroutsidethehouseforfearshewoulddisgracehim.hehasbecomemoreandmoreimperioustoher.“you’renotfittobeyourownguardian,isabella,now;andi,beingyourlegalprotector,mustretainyouinmycustody,however,distastefultheobligationmaybe.goupstairs,ihavesomethingtosaytoellendeaninprivate.that’snottheway:upstairs,itellyou!why,thisistheroadupstairs,child!”[23]herevealshowhehashumiliatedherandthatsheranoffwithhimevenafterhehangedherlittledog.hedeclaresisabellawillneverleavehim,evenifheweretosetherfree.isabelladeniesthisandsaysheathcliffwouldneverallowhertoleave.heronlywishistoseehimdie.heathcliffsayssheisravingandpushesheroutoftheroom.aftercatherine’sdeath,inheathcliff’spresence,isabellaremindedhindleythatheathcliffwasresponsibleforalltheirmiseries,andthatbutforhim,catherinewouldstillbealive.asshespokeslightlyofcatherine,heathcliffthrewadinnerknifeather,whichleavesawoundunderherear.shewouldnolongertakehimasahumanbeing.heathcliffsucceedsinthemajorpartofhisplanforvengeance:heisinpossessionoftheheightsandhareton,formerlybelongingtohisenemy,hindley.onceagainplayingontheweaknessofhisenemy,heathcliffappealstothepityandsensitivityhesensesincathy,catherine’sdaughter,andwringsherheartaboutlinton’sdeterioratingcondition.hestoopstoanythingtogetwhathewants.makinguseofcathy’sloyaltytoherweaklingcousinlinton,heathcliff’sson,hebaitsthetrapforhermarryingtohissonsoastomasterthepropertyofthrushcrossgrange.heathcliffisarealmonster.hedisownshissonandtortureshimindefianceofhispoorhealth.tohavecathymarriedtolintonasquicklyaspossible,healwaysfindallsortsofexcusestoleavethehouseleavingtheyoungcouplestayalonesoastocreatemoretimetolivetogether.eventually,cathygetsdoubtedaboutthemeetingswhilelintoninsistsnottellingherthereason.whencathydecidestoleave,lintonstopsherandbegshertosavehim.“butleaveme,andishallbekilled.”[24]hehintsshecandothisbyconsentingtosomething,what,hewillnotreveal.hedaresnotbecausehedreadshisfather.thevillainyofheathcliff,culminatingintheillegalactofkidnappingcathyandnelly,wouldbesheermelodrama,ifitwerenotforthegeniusofemilybrontëincreatingwhollyconsistentcharacters.webelieveheathcliffwouldactinthismanner.hehasreachedapointofcrisis.evenwhenedgarisdying,heathcliffrefusestoletcathygobackhometoseehimforthelasttime.togethisproperty,hebribesthelawyerandsucceedsputtingthepropertyintohisownpicket. 3.1.1.3feminizedfemalegothichero althoughtheheroheathcliffisdepictedtobeatypicaldevilishcharacteringothicnovel,heisnotthesameasthoseintraditionalones.hisnatureissoftenedbyhisendlesslovetocatherineandhisgivinginatlast. heathcliffcomesbacktoavengehimselfonhindleyandthenkillshimselfafterthreeyearsdisappearance.however,havingseenheragain,heknowshecandonothingtohurtcatherineandisabandoninghisvowofrevenge.encountscatherinehebecomesfulloftenderness.inparticularonthespotofcatherine’sdeathbed,thoughstillamonster-likeman,hisaffectiontocatherineisengravedonhisbonesandheart. “onmyapproachinghurriedlytoascertainifshehadfainted,hegnashedatme,andfoamedlikeamaddog,andgatheredhertohimwithgreedyjealousy.ididnotfeelasifiwereinthecompanyofacreatureofmyownspecies:itappearsthathewouldnotunderstand,thoughispoketohim;soistoodoff,andheldmytongue,ingreatperplexity.”[25]hereemilyusestherhetoricofhyperboletodescribethesoul-stirringscene,displayingthecrazy,brutal,mysterious,andterrifyinglovebetweentheheroandheroine. attheendofthestory,onthesurfaceitwouldappearthattheoldtragedymightbereenactedbytheyoungpeopleofthesecondgenerationatwutheringheightsandthrushcrossgrange.however,whilecathy,linton,andharetonshowsomeofthecharacteristicsoftheirparents,thesetraitshavebeenmodified,andthereishopeforahappiersolutiontotheproblemspresented.emilyhasingeniouslydesignedhareton,anotherheathcliff,whoselifeismuchluckierthanheathcliff;andthesamerelationshipthatexistedbetweenheathcliff,catherine,andedgarisbeingrepeatedbetweenhareton,cathy,andlinton.however,thenewgenerationreceivesamuchbetterending,andtosomeextent,ahappyone. heathcliffisafeminizedfemalegothicherowhodeservesoursympathy.hehasagloomychildhood,spendsmostofhislifeinthedarkofrevenge,andthusneverleadsarelaxedlife,especiallyaftercatherine’sdeath.hehasbeenobsessedbythefeelingsofcatherine’spresencenightandday.hefeelshauntedandthawshimself.hisrevengehasturnedtoashes.afterhisdeath,therearechangesatwutheringheights.thegateisopenandflowersfilltheyard.thesunissettingandthemoonrisingsymbolsofanewregime.theflowersthatcathyandharetonplantafteruprootingjoseph’sblackcurrantbushesareblooming.theoldorderofvengeanceandretributionasrepresentedbyheathcliffandoldjoseph,haspassedandhasbeenreplacedbythespiritoflove.allthesearethebrightsidesofthisnovelandevidentlyembodyemily’smakinguseoffemalegothic. 3.1.2catherineearnshaw’ssplitpersonality anotherkeycharacterinwutheringheightsistheheroine,catherineearnshaw.thefreespiritofemilybrontëisepitomizedincatherine,who,asachild,couldrideanyhorseinthestable,andinlateryearsridesroughshodovereveryonewhotriestostandinherway.beautiful,wild,arrogant,andwillful,catherineisafittingcompanionforthearrogantandvindictiveheathcliff.herloveforhimandthemoorsistherulingpassionofherlife.whileshemayappearheartlesswhenshechoosestomarryedgarlinton,sheisnaïveenoughtothinkthatbysodoingshewillbeabletolifthimfromthedegradationintowhichhehasbeenthrustbyhindley. thereisoneoccasionshowingcatherine’swildness.whennellyrefusestoleaveherandedgarintheroomalone,catherinetriestopushheroutoftheroomandpinchesherarm,leavinganuglymark.whenthebabyharetoncomplainsabout“wickedauntcathy”,[26]sheshakeshimuntilhisteethrattle,andedgartriestointervene.shedeniesshepinchednelly,butnellyshowsedgarthemark.lividwithfury,catherineboxesedgar’ears.edgarishorrifiedtoseethisothersideofcatherine,capableoftellingliesandbecomingviolent.emilyusesthedescriptionoffemalegothictoshowthatthenatureofhumanbeingshastwosides.nooneisperfectandoneisboundtohavehisorheruglyside.althoughsheismarriedtoedgar,sheisclearthatherloveforheathcliffisrememberedwithdeepgratitude.“ifthewickedmanintherehadnotbroughtheathcliffsolow,ishouldn’thavethoughtofit.itwoulddegrademetomarryheathcliffnow;soheshallneverknowhowilovehim;andthatnotbecausehe’shandsome,nelly,butbecausehe’smoremyselfthaniam.whateveroursoulsaremadeof,hisandminearethesame;andlinton’sisasdifferentasamoonbeamfromlightning,orfrostfromfire.”[27]hereemilyemploystheimageofthenaturetosymbolizethedifferencesbetweenheathcliff,catherine,andedgar’snature.intheworldofemily,thereisnodistinctionbetweenthegoodandtheevil.catherine’sloveforheathcliffisunparalleled.“myloveforlintonislikethefoliageinthewoods:timewillchangeit,i’mwellaware,aswinterchangesthetrees.myloveforheathcliffresemblestheeternalrocksbeneath:asourceoflittlevisibledelight,butnecessary.nelly,iamheathcliff!he’salways,alwaysinmymind:notasapleasure,anymorethaniamalwaysapleasuretomyself,butasmyownbeing.”[28]theextraordinarylovehardlyappearsinanygothicnovels,inwhichtheloveisalwayscondensedormentionedcasually.comparedwiththeordinarygothiccharacters,theheroandheroineinemily’swutheringheightsownmoretruefeelingsandfreshvigor.catherine’smixedandconflictedattitudetowardshermarriagesplitsandtearsher.theanguishvergingoncollapseandtheravingsinmorbidstatedifferfromtheoldgothictraditionandpavethewayforgothicnovels.emilybrontëobservespeoplefromtheangleofthefeministportrayshercharactersfromtheaspectsoffemalegothic,andthereforebringsustheshockofsupernaturalstrengthaswellasthevividportrayaloftheheroandtheheroines.thefurtherresearchforthepsychologyofthegothiccharactersdevelopstheshallowhorror-makingtechniqueintheoldgothicnovelsandsosoftenstheprimitive,pureterrortosomeextent.itleavesthereadersmoreroomtodeveloptheirownthoughtandenhancesthedepthofthoughtandtheaestheticawarenessingothicnovels. 3.2terrifyingnightmares theterrifyingandmysteriousatmosphereformsinthenightmareofmr.lockwood.nowhereelseinthebookisemilybrontë’sgeniussovividlyrevealedasinthispart.here,pastandpresent,dreamandreality,aremeldedintoacoherentwhole.allreferencestieintogether:thebookslockwoodfindsandreadsinthebedroom,thenamesthatarementioned,andfinally,lockwood’sunbelievablyvividdreams. “imuttered,knockingmyknucklesthroughtheglass,andstretchinganarmouttoseizetheimportunatebranch;insteadofwhich,myfingersclosedonthefingersofalittle,ice-coldhand!theintensehorrorofnightmarecameoverme:itriedtodrawbackmyarm,butthehandclungtoit,andamostmelancholyvoicesobbed,‘letmein-letmein!’…terrormademecruel;andfindingituselesstoattemptshakingthecreatureoff,ipulleditswaistontothebrokenpane,andrubbedittoandfrotillthebloodrandownandsoakedthebedclothes;stillitwailed,‘letmein!’andmaintaineditstenaciousgrip,almostmaddeningmewithfear.”[29]itisherethatemilyintroducesthesupernaturalintothestory.catherineistheonlyghostinmr.lockwood’snightmare.thenightmareisamasterpieceofsuspense. nightmareisthecommonvehicleusedingothicnovels.mostgothicnovelsareinspiredbydreams.thisisparticularlytrueofemily’swutheringheights.thereisoneoccasionwhenedgarconfrontscatherineandtellshershemustchoosebetweenhimandheathcliff,shefliesintoarage,locksthedoorandfortwodayssheremainsthere,touchingnofood.herpsychicconflictsrisetotheclimax.“tossingabout,sheincreasedherfeverishbewildermenttomadness,andtorethepillowwithherteeth…‘that’saturkey’s,’shemurmuredtoherself;‘andthisisawildduck’s;andthisisapigeon’s’…bonnybird;wheelingeverourheadsinthemiddleofthemoor…thisfeatherwaspickedupfromtheheath,thebirdwasnotshot;wesawitsnestinthewinter,fulloflittleskeletons.heathcliffsetatrapoverit,andtheoldonedarenotcome.”[30]catherine’sappallinghysteriaandtheseravingsseemtoshowthatsheisinthestateofdelirium.actually,thedaydream-likesurrealisticdescriptionunfoldsherpsychicstateofstruggleagainstanguishandfantasy.herhearthasdriftedawaytotheoldgooddayswhensheandheathcliffaretogether.thispassageofcatherine’sdisorderedravingssuggeststheheroinehassufferedseverelyfromtheanguishjustrightfortheoccasion.byapplyingthisvehicle,whatemilybrontëfeelslikeexpressingisnotonlytocreateanatmosphereofterrorbutalsotoestablishtheemotionsuspense,andthensetupauniquestructureforthewholestory,whichembodiesthecoloroffemalegothicatthesametime. 4.conclusion itiscommonthatmanycriticstakegothicnovelsasblacknovels.inparticular,theyholdhighprejudicetothosewhowriteinthisstyle.thereisnodoubtthatemilybrontëisregardedasawriteroutofthemainstreamofthenovelsinthe19thcentury.herstyleisclearandsimplebutchargedwithtremendousvitality.shedoesnotwriteformoralandsocialeffectascharlesdickensdoes.shewritesfortherhythmofhersentencesandtheexactchoiceofwordconveyshermeaningexplicitly.thestyleissocondensed,likethatofapoetthateverywordmustberead,orsomevitalpointwillbemissed.thesmallerobjectorsnatchofconversationhassomepartinthewholestructure.forher,theuseofgothicisnotjusttoproduceaterrifyingatmosphereandmakereaderssicklikethegothicnovels,butsetupamoreperfectstructureandthenshowusthecomplicatedpsychologyofthecharacters.byportrayingthedevilishcharactersandtheterrifyingnightmare,emilybrontëfindsanewwaytoexpressfeelings—femalegothic.shepaysmoreattentiontothenatureofprotagonistsandholdsthatthereisnodefiniteborderlinebetweenthegoodandtheevil.herboundlessimaginationandrealisticdepictionservebetterfortheportrayalofthecharacters.inheritinggothictraditioninherwriting,shedevelopsitfromherownangle.heronlynovelwutheringheightsisagoodembodimentofherfemalegothictechnique.thenovelmaybeconsideredasagreatlyricpoemforitaboundsinimagery.emilybrontë’swritingisalsomosteffectivewhendepictingthepassionateandviolentcharactersofheathcliffandcatherine,forshehasuncannyabilitytotranslatefeelingsintowords.inherdescriptivepassagesshepaintsavividpictureofthewildbleaknessoftheheights,andthecloyingeaseandluxuryofthrushcrossgrange.emilybrontëhasinputthelivelyenergyintotheenglishgothicnovelandthereforespeededthedevelopmentoftheenglishnovels. 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